Extra virgin coconut oil and coconut oil
A world of difference

Usually coconut oil is refined and made of the copra of coconut. Copra is obtained by drying the coconut pulp at extremely high temperatures. It is from this copra that coconut oil is extracted using solvents. The oil is then bleached, deodorized and refined. The result is a cheap product, which is bad for our health. When animals are given refined coconut fat which contains transfats, but not essential fats then this coconut fat will increase the animals’ cholesterol level, according to a lecture given by Mary Enig in Vietnam in 1996.
Sterols, lecithin, polyphenols, carotenoids, minerals, vitamin E and other vegetable substances are removed during the refining process. And yet there is a reason for the presence of every one of these substances. Vitamin E prevents the oil from becoming rancid, while carotenoids protect the skin against the sun; minerals ensure growth and electric conduction, etc. Refined and hardened coconut oil will only melt around 30 to 37°C and cold-pressed extra virgin oil around 25°C. This means that refi ned coconut oil is rather solid at body temperature, which does not benefit our health. Extra virgin coconut oil is obtained by letting pulp ferment naturally or pressing it mechanically. Extra virgin oil smells and tastes of coconut like extra virgin olive oil tastes of olives. Extra virgin oil is perfectly liquid at 25°C and has a very small molecular structure. It is very healthy and extremely easily absorbed through the intestines and the skin.

Medium chain fatty acids
Coconut oil is the richest source
of Medium Chain Fatty Acids

MCTs are Medium Chain Triglycerides or medium chain fatty acids. These fats are most prevalent in coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The molecules of MCT fats are smaller, they are easily broken down and require little energy and enzymes in order to be absorbed and used by our body. They don’t require pancreatic enzymes. (22) Nor do they require any intervention from the liver or the gall. That is why people with liver problems benefit from the MCTs of coconut oil, as they are much easier digested. In contrast to other fats MCTs will be used as a fuel fi rst, rather than stored as a fat. (23) That is why athletes like coconut oil MCTs as they fit in perfectly with a diet geared toward vitality.
Thanks to MCT’s healing properties this oil is often used in hospitals for patients with severe burns and people who are critically ill. (17) Long chain fatty acids as prevalent in fi sh oil and vegetable oil are stored as fat and are only used in second instance as energy.

Stomach, intestinal and digestive issues:
Coconut will ensure that more nutrients are absorbed

Coconut oil contains a lot of MCTs, small molecules which are easily and rapidly digested. It is wise to replace long chain fatty acids such as corn, sunfl ower, olive and soya oil by coconut oil for people who have digestive problems. Especially older people, small children and people with a nervous nature. (13) But also in cases of spastic colon, colitis ulcerosa, gastritis, diverticulosis, chronic intestinal infections, Crohn’s disease and constipation. Fewer nutrients are ab sorbed and the body will be burdened with toxins from the sick intestine, which constantly compromise our vitality. Fast- ing, detoxing and coconut oil to the rescue. Pharmacists J. Graedon and Dr. T. Graedon state the follow- ing: ‘Coconut macaroons (cookies) are better suited for people with Crohn’s disease than any other medicine’. (86)
MCTs will ensure that nutrients are absorbed faster and easier by the intestines than LCTs. (87). The longer the chain, for example EPA and DHA from fi sh oil, the harder the intestines will have to work to process them. The more AA fatty acids (meat), the more infected the intestine will become. A diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (for example fatty fi sh, sunfl ower oil, linseed oil) will burden our intestine the most. (87) MCTs from coconut oil will contribute to a better absorption of nutrients in people whose large intestine has been removed in part or as a whole (88). This is due to the fact that MCTs are tiny fat molecules. A Belgian study confi rmed that vitamin E in fat formulas containing MCT is absorbed twice as well as fat formulas that exclusively contain LCT. (89)

Healthy intestinal flora are achieved by eating unrefined food that is reach in fi bre and untreated vegetables and fruit. Other foods that contribute: Fermented food such as sauerkraut, other fermented vegetables such as some pickles, inuline-rich vegeta bles such as salsify, Jerusalem artichokes and onions, kombucha, kefi r, chutneys, raw cheeses, live yoghurt, fermented cereal pudding, some wines, beers and vinaigrette. Naturally these should not be pasteurized or heated or the good bacteria will be killed.

MCTs from coconut oil prevent and heal intestinal infections

Coconut oil can make a substantial contribution to prevent and alleviate infections in the digestive tract. These infections often are partly due to the body’s reaction to infecting organisms. A British study with tests on mice concluded that coconut oil can drastically reduce the risk of infections and that this oil can be used therapeutically for acute and chronic infection diseases. Coconut oil can be especially useful for patients suffering from Crohn’s disease, an illness whereby the intestines are infected or in treating colitis ulcerosa, a similar disease, which also infects the large intestine.
Research has shown that the anti-inflammatory components in coconut oil can reduce the irritation of the intestine. Moreover the anti-microbial components of coconut oil will combat viruses, bacteria and potential funguses, which burned the intestines and contribute to it.

Coconut oil protects in case of gluten allergy but is also an ideal solution for stomach and intestinal problems

People who suffer from gluten allergy (coeliakie) often suffer from chronic infections and the mucous membrane of their intestinal wall is often damaged. This reduces the absorbing capacity of the intestine, can lead to diarrhoea and a lot of pain. Coconut oil and coconut products will protect the intestinal wall with their medium chain fatty acids and combat reactions to infections. The anti-inflammatory function and the partly antibacterial, antiviral and anti-fungal function of this medium chain fatty acid is exceptionally healing for people who suffer from coeliakie.

The antimicrobial function of coconut oil MCTs

Evolution has equipped plants, animals and mankind with a number of defence mech- anisms against viruses, bacteria, funguses, etc. Coconuts grow in a tropical climate, teeming with organisms that constantly attack us. Coconuts have adapted to this situ- ation with their medium chain fatty acids and have developed a natural antimicrobial system. Breast milk and the milk of other mammals draw on the MCTs of lauric fatty acids to protect newborns. (That is why you will also find some MCTs in butter). One of the unique characteristics of coconut oil is that it is an antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anti-protozoan food. (29, 30)

Coconut oil as a neutraceutical
Nature heals...

In regions where coconut oil has been on the menu for several generations, people are aware that it is an effective remedy for healing wounds and that it has anti-inflam matory and antimicrobial properties. Some coconut oil experts are working hard towards having coconut oil officially included in the list of neutraceuticals, a food supplement, with a high nutritional value that prevents or heals chronic disease. Coconut oil can fortify our immune system. Lauric, caproic, caprine, capryl, and myr- istic acid, which constitute more than 70% of the fatty acids in coconut oil, protect us against bacteria, viruses, funguses, fermentation and protozoa. By eating food that has been prepared with coconut oil we can better protect ourselves.

The different powerful antimicrobial fatty acids in coconut oil are:

45% lauric acid (an MCT with 12 carbon atoms)
10% caprine acid (an MCT with 10 carbon atoms)
8% capryl acid (an MCT with 8 carbon atoms)
0.5% caproic acid (an MCT with 6 carbon atoms)
8 to 12% myristic acid (an LCT with 16 carbon atoms)

Lauric acid in coconut oil
Lauric acid in breast milk and human skin

Lauric acid is released in the skin in order to protect our body against microbes. Lauric acid is also present in breast milk to help protect a newborn against infections. Lauric acid in coconut oil also protects people in the tropics from infections. Coconut oil contains the highest levels of lauric acids of all fats and oils. At least 45% of coconut oil is constituted by lauric acid. In the body lauric acid is converted into monolauric acid. This monolauric acid kills several bacteria and viruses with a protective fatty layer. Some studies have shown however that lauric acid by itself also has antimicro bial properties. (81) The Berkeley School even confirmed in a newsletter that lauric acid even protects the liver and helps combat infections.

Pregnant women and new mothers, think of your baby, think of healthy fats...

Breast milk contains approximately 45 to 50% saturated fats, 35% monounsaturated fats and 15 to 20% monounsaturated fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6). Normally 18% of all breast milk is constituted by lauric acid and caprine fatty acids, which help protect the foetus and the baby against infections due to funguses, bacteria, viruses and protozoa (35). Hence the assumption that babies who are not breastfed will be ill quicker, than those who receive breast milk from their healthy mothers. This level of protective fats can decrease to only 3% in mothers who eat a fat-free diet or a lot of junk foods containing transfats. (1998, Am. J. of Clin. Nutrition). Adding coconut oil or coconut-based products to one’s meals can help mothers obtain levels of protective fatty acids that are up to 27% higher. (119) Thus the mother, the foetus or the baby are better protected against infections. Many nutritionists consider coconut oil to be a healthy nutrient for babies due to the high level of lauric acid in coconut oil. Moreover coconut oil also contains caprine acid, capryl, caproic and myristic acids that have the same protective properties (together more than 70% of coco- nut oil).
And extra virgin coconut oil is also easily digested and barely burdens the pancreas, the liver and gall. Or- gans, which are still under full development in babies.

Next to extra virgin coconut oil nursing mothers should also take 12 to 1 tablespoon of organic vegetable omega 3/6/9 a day. Omega 3 and Omega 6 are needed for good eyes and for the foetus’s and ba- by’s brain development. During the last three months of pregnancy the foetus’s brain mass will triple and from birth to the age of 1 the brain will have increased in weight from 350g to 1kg. MCT fat from coconut, cholesterol, and omega 3 or omega 6 fatty acids are what the brain needs. The brain’s dry mass consists of 60 to 80% fats. Recommendation for pregnant mothers or nursing mothers: 1 to 3 tablespoons of ex- tra virgin coconut oil with red palm oil per day and 1 tablespoon of vegetable omega 3/6/9 with sufficient natural vitamin E and carotenoids. Of course 100% organic and cold pressed. Recommendation for babies up to 2 years, who are no longer breastfed: 1 to 3 coffee spoons of coconut oil with red palm oil per day, distribute during meals, and 1 to 2 small coffee spoons of vegetable omega 3/6/9 a day. Of course 100% organic and cold pressed.

The problem of resistance to antibiotics
Coconut oil offers a broader solution

If our immune system is functioning properly then in most cases our body will be able to defend itself and then we won’t be needing antibiotics or vaccinations. Many of the surrounding bacteria and viruses are friendly organisms. Without them mankind would be unable to thrive. In our intestines alone 2 kilos of these small organisms subsist.
Better hygiene has allowed us to make important progress in the battle against infec tious disease over the last 150 years. But sadly all our knowledge doesn’t help us prevent epidemics. Even new bacteria or variants of an older bacterium continue to plague medical science. Statistics show that the cause of death due to infectious diseases has risen considerably since 1980. (38) Two important factors are unhealthy feeding habits and a wrong and frequent use of antibiotics.
1. In many western countries, the US first and foremost, we tend to gorge on refined foods such as sugar,
whitemeal products and refined oils. 80% of our calorie intake today comes from foods with no substantial nutritional value. They don’t only make us fat, but they also undermine our resistance.

2. Not only people use a lot of antibiotics. The cattle industry also loves to use anti- biotics. Lots of them! This had led to certain bacteria surviving and becoming resistant against antibiotics. Resistant bacteria can also become life-threatening bacteria.
3. Although antibiotics can eliminate bacteria (not viruses!) in our bodies, they con
tinue to be alien substances in our body. They constitute an extra burden for our liver, kidneys, stomach and intestines.

4. Antibiotics also destroy the good bacteria in our body, such as the good intesti nal flora, a complex of billions of beneficial micro-organisms living in our intestine. Possible consequences include diarrhoea; but we also become more sensitive to intruders due to the fact that the protective layer of good intestinal bacteria has been eliminated. Funguses, which are normally contained, can also flare up. In short, our immune system is weakened.
Coconut oil can provide a natural alternative to antibiotics. Coconut oil not only protects us against bacteria, but also against viruses and protozoa. Coconut oil also helps ensure that there are no fungal infections. If you do use antibiotics, then at least use some coconut oil to prevent fungal infections.

Coconut oil also helps prevent stomach ulcers and helps heal them

In the past people thought that stomach ulcers were a result of stress. Although stress can play a significant role in many diseases we now know that Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) also contributes considerably to chronic stomach infections and is usually present in 90% of all cases of a stomach ulcer. Treatments with antibiotics often have positive consequences but sadly the patient will fall ill again and often suffer hideous side-effects.
There are three great benefits to help combat these ulcers with the help of the fatty acids in coconut oil. 1. The bacteria and viruses do not become resistant to coconut oil because coconut oil continuously adapts to its surroundings. 2. Coconut oil does not cause fungal infections but prevents them. 3. Coconut oil does not weaken the immune system, but strengthens it.

Researchers have discovered another interesting fact about coconut oil. When an unsaturated form of lauric acid was tested regarding the destruction of bacteria, next to the saturated version contained in coconut oil, researchers arrived at the conclusion that the saturated acid in coconut oil was up to 1,000 times more effective than its unsaturated partner. (10) Although the monoglycerides of most medium chain fatty acids were effective in kill ing bacteria, lauric acid was the only fatty acid that effectively worked to destroy H. pylori.

‘Never before in history was it this relevant to emphasize the value of lauric acid. The medium chain fatty acids of coconut oil are the same as those contained in breast milk and the same health benefits’, according to lipids scientists Dr. Jon Kabara.

Coconut oil and fungal infections
Be rid of Candida

Coconut oil cannot only reduce our dependence on antibiotics; it also contributes to a healthy balance in our intestinal flora. One of the discouraging side-effects of medication and antibiotics is that they not only kill bad bacteria, they also kill good bacteria, thereby causing fungal infections.
You will find a lot of
funguses in countries where a lot of coconuts are consumed. In
dia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Polynesia and the Philippines are among these countries. Remarkably the incidence of fungal infections is quite low. (111). Polynesian women for example rarely to never suffer from fungal infections. The best-known natural rem- edy for funguses is capryl acid, a medium chain fatty acid, which is also present in coconut oil. The University of Iceland has conducted a large-scale study into the effectiveness of high concentrations of lauric acid and caprine acid.(9) They discovered that caprine acid was the fastest and most effective fatty acid to combat the Candida albicans fungus. But also in low concentrations lauric acid was the most active, even after a longer incubation. Capryl acid came in third place. (98). These three fatty acids are extremely prevalent in coconut oil. Other research has shown that the MCTs in coconut oil can kill funguses such as Candida albicans (106).

The ‘detoxification’ effect or Herxheimer response

Three spoons a day, always during or before a meal, will kill the funguses in your intestines. The massive dying of funguses such as Candida albicans might give you a temporary headache, skin rash or diarrhoea. This response is also known as the Herx- heimer response. The rapid killing of micro-organisms means that these funguses will release toxins. This response does however indicate that you are doing a good job of eliminating the funguses.

Coconut oil is a developing natural broad-spectrum anti-biotic, which also kills viruses and funguses

Once they have been developed, chemical antibiotics will always remain the same. They only kill those bacteria that have not yet become resistant. As bacteria always adapt in their urge to survive, the present antibiotics at one point or another will be- come useless. The bigger the pressure on the bacteria, the better they will adapt. The more antibiotics used, the more ‘intelligently’ we produce bacteria. That is why hospi- tals are the ideal breeding ground for new variants: ‘hospital bacteria’. Antibiotics are used before and after almost every operation. Any antibiotics that are presently being developed will have lost their value in the future. This does not apply to coconut oil. Coconut oil is a natural product, which adapts in line with its environment, in its urge to survive. The moral: Frequent use of antibiotics will give bacteria a head start on mankind in the long term. Increase your health, take coconut oil and your body will do the rest.

Which bacteria and viruses can be killed by the lauric
acid in coconut oil?

Monolauric acid dismantles the fatty membranes of viruses and renders bacteria and funguses passive. It almost dissolves the protective fat layer as it were, the sheath around certain viruses and bacteria, giving the human immune system the opportunity to finish the job. Of all the saturated fats lauric acid has the most comprehensive antiviral function, more than capryl acid or myristic acid. (82) Coconut oil has a positive impact on tumours, STDs, meningitis and can even reduce tooth decay by up to 80%.

Worldwide there are approximately 50 million new cases of people infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (the most transmissible sexual disease), which can be eliminated with monolauric acid.

Coconut oil restores general health

If coconut oil kills bad bacteria, viruses and funguses in our body, then general health will improve. Because an excess of bad bacteria, viruses and funguses can exhaust us, can make us chronically tired and ill, burden our resistance and cause several ail- ments and illnesses. By adding coconut oil to your diet you will feel much more en ergetic. According to Dr. Mary Enig an adult should consume 24 grams of lauric acid daily for therapeutic purposes. This amounts to 3.5 tablespoons of coconut oil a day.

Can coconut oil help combat HIV and AIDS?

Millions of people worldwide are infected with HIV or suffer from AIDS. Does a cock- tail of toxic medication provide the solution? Not very probable. The virus’s unknown properties make it very difficult to combat HIV. Healthy nutrition and extra virgin coconut oil may have the potential to combat HIV on the one hand, but they can certainly alleviate the symptoms and side-effects of AIDS on the other hand. HIV can be combated by coconut oil in the same way that coconut oil is effective against other bacteria and viruses. Recently there was a lot of commotion and re- search about how the human herpes virus 6A (HHV-6A) can collaborate synergeti- cally with the HIV virus during attacks on the immune system. This mainly happens due to the reduction of a specific type of lymphocytes (CD4) and the destruction of the lymph nodes. A study conducted by Knox and Carrigan in Wisconsin revealed that the most important form of this virus can be found in the lymph nodes of all HIV-positive patients tested. (12) Luckily HHV-6A is one of those viruses, which can be destroyed by the MCTs or middle chain fatty acids, found in coconut oil.
‘Research reported that coconut oil has an antiviral effect and can reduce the level of viral infection in HIV-positive patients. The positive antiviral effects could not only be attributed to the lauric acid monoglycerides, but also to the coconut oil itself. Coconut oil is a cheap instrument against the HIV virus. (13) The recommended therapeutic quantity of coconut oil is 3.5 tablespoons a day, which is the equivalent of half a coconut. Coconut oil does not only help combat infections in AIDS patients but will also ensure that they can maintain their weight easier. Coconut oil also ensures that malnourished patients can regain their target weight without leading to excess weight. So coconut oil can also be an important food supplement during therapy. It is easily digested, provides energy almost immediately, improved the intestinal function and can be easily used in all types of recipes.

Especially for diabetics:
hurrahs for extra virgin coconut oil

1. Extra virgin coconut oil can reduce hypoglycaemic attacks, hunger pangs and snacking during meals by contributing to stabilizing the glycaemic index. Adding coconut oil to your meals will contribute to maintaining a stable glycemic index.
2. People who suffer from diabetes often have issues with fats because their pancreas does not produce sufficient amounts of fat-digesting enzymes and their liver and gall supply less fat-emulsifying gall salts. As a result they have a harder time digesting fats, so that they often suffer from constipation and hard stools. People with diabetes should thus replace part of the other fats in their diet with extra virgin coconut oil. Because extra virgin coconut oil contains 60% MCTs and thus barely burdens the pancreas, liver and gall.
3. Several vitamins, minerals and other fat-soluble substances are better absorbed as a result of the better absorption of fats from coconut oil.
4. Patients who have insufficient control of their disease are extra vulnerable when it comes to the harmful impact of oxidized fats, which result from the effects of free radicals. If one does not carefully protect polyunsaturated fatty acids with vitamin E and
carotenes, the number of oxidized fats in our body and brain will increase. Coconut oil contains less than 2% polyunsaturated fats, and as a result reduces oxidative stress. It is thus an intelligent fat in diabetes therapy.

5. The pancreas of diabetics releases insufficient insulin, or the cells have become insulin—insensitive, which means that they absorb insufficient amounts ofmedia glucose, which is the fuel cells need for energy. Coconut oil helps provide cells with energy. You will have more energy without requiring the intervention of insulin. (24)
6. Coconut oil even contributes to a better insulin function, reduced blood pressure and reduced amounts of protein in the urine of diabetics. (32)

Diabetics should say ‘no’ to transfats and refined oils

‘The real issue with diabetes is the deregulation of the fat metabolism and not the conversion of sugar. The sugar issue is a side-effect of the deregulated fat metabolism’, says Dr. Johanna Budwig. Transfatty acids and refined plays play a hugely negative role in the development of cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Diabetics should thus avoid re- fined and oxidized fats and oils even more than other people. Because transfats and refined fats prevent the proper functioning of the cellular membranes. As a result the glucose will have a more difficult time penetrating the cells. In other words: Too many transfats and refined fats have made the cells less sensitive to insulin, due to their negative impact on the cellular walls. By replacing unhealthy fats by healthy ones the cells will once again become sensitive to insulin. The prevalence of diabetes is quite low in populations that consume saturated fats of coconut. A 1998 Indian study showed that the incidence of diabetes in Indians who gave up their traditional foods, including ghee and coconut oil, in favour of refined polyunsaturated fatty acids of sunflower and safflower oil is becoming alarming.
Studies in Polynesia have shown that there is a clear relation in population groups which migrate from their traditional foods, which are rich in coconut oil, to modern food that is rich in refined monounsaturated fatty acids, with the rise in diabetes. The Indians have started to develop diabetes due to refined foods. The incidence of diabetes is highest in ‘Americanized’ Indians.

Coconut oil and the prostate

Another potential use of coconut oil could be the treatment of benign prostate hyper- trophy or prostate enlargement in men. At present a very popular treatment based on herbs, i.e. the berries of the saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata or Serenoa repens), is already available. These berries contain fat-like components, which help combat the processing of testosterone into DHT, which in turn promotes strong growth of the prostate. The active component in these berries is the fat fraction, which mainly con tains medium chain fatty acids. That is why coconut oil, which is rich in MCTs, could have a beneficial effect on men’s prostate. (4)

Coconut oil and beauty tips

Skincare: It is no coincidence that people, in regions where coconut is part of the daily diet and habits, have a beautiful soft skin and strong luxuriant hair. Coconut oil is important for the inside and outside of our body.

1. Inside: By protecting yourself against free radicals, both on the inside and outside, you can contribute to your young looks, prevent brown pigment spots to a certain extent and limit wrinkles. Free radicals are unstable, aggressive molecules, which damage cells, proteins, fats, DNA, and which thus tend to accelerate the ageing process. Wrinkles, brown pigment spots are largely the consequences of such oxidation processes. Because coconut oil contains saturated and stable fats, these are not affected by free radicals. By partially sub- stituting unsaturated fats by saturated fatty acids, there is less , there is less of a risk of the formation of free radicals.
2. Outside: Coconut oil contains protective substances such as Coconut oil contains protective substances such as lauric acid, which the skin needs to arm itself against dehydra tion and harmful infl uences. The sebum which the skin naturally produces mainly The sebum which the skin naturally produces mainly consists of MCTs, which are abundantly present in coconut oil. Coconut oil also has a tendency to form acids, exactly what the skin needs. Coconut oil can be a great natural alternative to expensive cosmetics. (39) Many commercial products contain unwanted chemicals (irritants), are teeming with unfriendly fullers, emulgators, all types of chemical preservatives and perfumes and generally speaking with refined unsaturated fats (which become rancid once applied to the skin and which are devoid of their natural healing substances such as vitamin E and carotenes). In other words, they contain very few healing substances. Most skin products are based on petroleum derivates or water. These are cheap ingredients, but our skin doesn’t need them at all. Water-based lotions often leave the skin as dry after use as it was before. Water will soften the skin for a short while, but once it has evapo- rated, the skin is dryer than before. Frequent washing will tend to dry out the skin. Jeremy, a yoga teacher that I know, says the following: ‘Once a week, after my shower, I cover my skin with coconut oil to protect it. Before putting on my clothes, I let the coconut oil pen etrate into my skin for a good 15 minutes’. By rubbing your skin with coconut oil, you will also restore the skin’s protective layer.

Red spots on the skin (psoriasis or eczema) can be reduced by regu- larly consuming coconut oil and rubbing the skin with it. Coconut oil contains 3 fatty acids, which protect the skin from microbial attacks and harmful substances in our environment: Caproic, capryl and lauric acid. In other words they combat reactive infections. The skin produces lauric acid in order to protect our body against microbes. The richest source of lauric acid is coconut oil. For example mix coconut oil with some drops of essential lavender oil.
It is important to use organic extra virgin coconut oil, which has not been hardened, deodorized or refined. If you rub your skin with coconut oil after your bath or shower (don’t dry off completely), you will notice that your skin will feel less dry than it did before. In population groups which consume a lot of coconuts, the oil is used to treat cuts, skin infections and scrapes. Coconut oil can also be used with essential tea oil, cinnamon or savory to remove warts. Guaranteed success within 3 months, dab several times a day.
Of course coconut oil is not the only measure to achieve great-looking smooth skin. Healthy eating habits including a lot of vegetables and suffi cient whole cereal products, fruit, herbs and nuts are also essential. Sufficient attention for vitamin E, C,
silicium, omega 3 and omega 6 specifi cally, without lapsing into excess, are essential for healthy skin. The essential oils of lime, lemon, mandarin and orange, when added to coconut oil, have a wonderful effect and contribute to young, soft skin. (see hand cream)